Looking over the same period (2005-2016) for other stocks in the S&P 500, we see a similar trend as we saw with Northrup. The 10% of stocks which have reduced their share counts by the greatest percentage since 2005—stocks like Autozone, Travelers, Coca-Cola Enterprises, AmerisourceBergen, or Fiserv—have done very well as a portfolio. On average, they’ve reduced share count by 47% and they’ve outperformed the S&P 500 by an average of 88%[iv]. What’s interesting is that this strong performance has happened despite the fact the median market cap and net income growth has been lower for these companies than for the average S&P 500 stock.
Source: Shrinkage vs. Growth
What efficient markets are associated with which is wrong is that efficient markets mean that the price is always right – that the price is exactly the present value of all of the dividends and the earnings that are gonna come in the future and the price is perfectly right. That’s wrong. The price is never right. In fact, prices are always wrong. What’s right is that nobody knows for sure whether they’re too high or too low. It’s not that the prices are always right, it’s that it’s never clear that they are wrong…the market is very, very difficult to beat.
Source: The Upside of Academic Finance
A note from Bridgewater Associates, an investment firm that oversees US$150 billion in client assets, vividly described how its founder, Ray Dalio, “laid the foundation” of risk parity while developing the All Weather investment strategy. The idea for All Weather is simple: Different economic scenarios pose risks to different asset classes throughout the business cycle. Dalio and his team identified four major risk scenarios and made sure that at least a part of the portfolio could weather each risk. So this is where the All Weather is similar to risk parity: Instead of targeting optimal risk and return in the traditional portfolio optimization setting, both strategies strive to achieve balanced risk contributions from all asset classes.
Source: Risk Parity Made Easy: Cliff’s Notes